Tianjin, also known as the diamond of the Bohai Gulf and the gateway to the capital of the People's Republic ofChina, is one of the 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government of the People's Republic of China.
The name of Tianjin was first called at the beginning of the Yongle Years in Ming Dynasty. Later, as a strategic point, Tianjin began to build city walls and defenses and it was then called "Tianjinwei". In 1860, Tianjin became a trading port and the second biggest industrial and commercial city as well as the biggest center of finance, commerce and trade in the north. Tianjin became a municipality directly under the Central Government of the People's Republic of China after the founding of New China. Now, there are 18 districts and counties in Tianjin, including 6 city center districts, 4 town districts, 3 seashore districts and 5 counties.
The height above sea level of Tianjin is falling gradually from the northern mountain area to the southern flatland and sloping from the west of the end of the alluvial fan of the Yongding River to the east of the Wuqing County, which forms the geomorphologic features of higher in the north and the west while lower in the south and the east. There are four geomorphologic types, namely, mountain, hill, flatland and seacoast.
The climate in Tianjin is warm, semi humidity, semi dry and monsoon with typical features of the warm temperature zone. The average temperature in the whole year is 12.3 ℃. The average temperature in the hottest July is 26 ℃ and the record for the hottest temperature reached 39.7 ℃ on the 4th, July 1972; the average temperature in the coldest January is -4 ℃ and the record for the lowest temperature reached -22.9℃ in 1966.The annual waterfall is 561.3 millimeters.
As a famous city with a long history and culture, Tianjin has rich tourism resources. Three scenic spots have been set up: a tourism attraction of the downtown sightseeing spot along the Haihe River and cultural relics as well as the memorial location of the revolutionary struggle; the Tanggu seaside recreational area characterized by the Port of Tianjin, mainly by the harbor, salt plant and oil field; and the Jixian County sightseeing district famous for natural scenic spots and cultural relics.
"Ten Tourism Spots" of Tianjin have been set up, namely, Huangyaguan Great Wall, the site of Dagu Fortification with Built-in cannons, Old Dule Temple in Jixian County, Tourism Area of Pan Mountain, Scenic Line along Haihe River, Water Park, Scenic Line along the Circulating Line, Ancient Cultural Street, Nanshi Food and Hotel Street and Tianjin TV Tower. Some natural protective areas like the Geological Natural Protective Area in the Middle of Proterozoic Erathem, the Natural Second Growth Protective Area in Eight Immortals Mountain, the Natural Protective Area of Ancient Coastline and Damp Place have been decided as the national natural protective areas. Named as World's Construction Fair, several hundred foreign buildings had been protected well in Tianjin, which are the witnesses for China being suffered to be a self-colony invaded by the imperialism and also the fruit of wisdom of people's labor. They have become a big Landscape of Tianjin.